Power autonomy is the foundational enabler of autonomous operation. In the realm of small-scale robots, the motion is often curtailed by tethers, which can be either physical connections to a power source or wireless links to a designated field such as magnetic fields, acoustic fields, electric fields, chemical feeds, and light.

Although large-scale robots can readily employ standard-sized batteries such as cylindrical, prismatic, and pouch cells to eliminate the need for tethers, integrating small-scale batteries capable of powering the intricate electronics within small-scale robots poses a significant challenge.

Then, what are the challenges?

1)Determining a precise energy requirement for the integrable battery is challenging due to varying levels of intelligence and autonomy.

2)Increasing the energy density and identify opportunities to bring batteries closer to the objective of empowering micro/nanorobots to operate independently.

As challenges associated with battery materials persist across various scales, the primary objective is to elucidate the strategies for realizing integrable small-scale batteries and the unique material requirements associated with them.